The EU has presented a complete proposal in mid March 2007 by head of the governments by the European Union council is also the chancellor to lower carbon emissions by 20 and by 30% if more heads of state cooperate. This new cooperation is known as the Heiligendamm Process.
The United States which produces one-quarter of all man-made greenhouse gases is the only G8 (the eight largest economies) member not to have ratified the Kyoto Protocol, which sets mandatory targets for the reduction of such emissions. Canada, France, Italy, Japan, Russia, and the UK are also members in theG8 have signed the agreement.
While many governments feel that the United Nations is the only global forum that global issues can be completed many also have observed from past behavior feel that political-blocks can distort and circumvent any meaningful progress. There is a history of small mini-states, which have an equal vote in the UN, siding will other countries that have been persuaded to support issues as a quid pro quoi rather than on the merits of the issues. The U.S. for example, prefers to work outside the UN and has developed a plan to work in a proprietary process and have an agreement among the fifteen largest producers of greenhouse gases, including emerging economies of China, India, and Brazil. With United States encouragement, it looks very promising to advance mitigation of emissions. The Bush Administration has demonstrated much flexibility on the issue, and is encouraging market and technological solutions with political guidelines, our speaker emphasized.
There are several technological solutions to reduce emissions.
· Capture the carbon gases from electrical production by coal and store into the earth. However this will significantly add to the cost of electrical production.
· Brazil and many U.S. corporations are investing in bio-fuels. However, Ethanol production effect on agricultural products is problematic by significantly increasing the cost of staple food products in many countries, and corn production in the US could not satisfy the market.
· Wind and solar power production is becoming somewhat more price-competitive but will only provide small amounts of needed production.
· France believes that nuclear energy is the cheapest and cleanest for of electrical production and it is the only way to solve the bio fuels dilemma. France now gets 80% of its electricity from nuclear power. Furthermore, France sells significant electrical energy produced by its nuclear power plants to neighboring German, Italy, and Spain. Other countries’ nuclear production percentages are Belgium 60%, Sweden 43%, Spain 36%, S. Korea 26%Germany 29%, Japan 29%, UK 28%, US 19%, Canada 18%respectively.
Presently, while the German government agrees that nuclear energy does not cause climate change and also it is also cheaper in the long run to provide energy its policy is not to invest in nuclear energy at the present time. For the next 15 years the German government will promote cleaner coal power plants which will produce less carbon.The basic problem with the Kyoto treaty is that only industrialized countries are included and constraints of pollution output do not include India and China who are heavy polluters albeit less than the US. In Kyoto, governments are separated into two general categories: developed countries, referred to as Annex I countries and have accepted greenhouse gas emission reduction obligations and must submit an annual greenhouse gas inventory. The developing countries, referred to as Non-Annex I countries, do have not have greenhouse gas emission reduction obligations but may participate in the Clean Development Mechanism.It is generally agreed by EU countries that India, China, Brazil and Mexico need to be part of a global arrangement of the post KyotoThere is momentum now. It stated in Johannesburg five years ago and there is a scheduled meeting of Baillie Indonesia in December will be the first meeting. The beginning of the process. There was to be a definition of the most responsible their current position. Japan, Canada would also we are a developing country we will do our best we are not in a position to invest in expensive technology at our current stage of economic development... Others want to see a binding agreement.Many governments reject the argument that some of the emerging economies should be exempt because they cannot be considered “developing” economies if they are providing a substantial about of manufactured goods to the world market. They may make the argument that they use a lot less carbon-based energy per capita.There are two main tools to take action on the increasing global problem of Climate Change MEDIATION AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE FIGHT CLIMATE CHANGETWO TOOLS TO For claim change.Our Speaker pointed out that last year one year no one was talking about climate change. However because with the alarming news with some reports from the International Center for Climate Change there is now a lot of support to take action. Jan Feb. and march. The international media press was helpful build up public opinion and now political leaders are getting involved.The reports now claim that Climate change is very likely to be caused by human activity and therefor there has to be human action to stall climate change. More disturbing amany leading one of the major impacts is sea level rise more than one or two meter by the end of this century.The Facts11 out of the 12 years has been the hottest years since 1850 when record were kept. Without mitigateing climate change the average temp will increase by end of century by 2 to 4 degrees centigrade the repaaort perdictsUntil recently the EU was isolated on its position in the UN. The EU Group of G7 US and Australia. OPEC countries are very influential in re ICFCC International Center for Climate Change. Every one is waiting for someone else to proceedThe EU has presented a complete proposal unilateral proposal in mid march by head of government by the European council chancellor to lower carbon emissions by 20 and by 30% if more heads of state cooperate headed by GermanyConsider us doing something but there was no reaction, by coincidence Germany was also the chair of the G8 and the President of the EUUnexpected move made some substantial conciliation and that climate change about technology but alsoThe US never liked it to be be decided by the UN and prefer to work outside the UN. They will work as a preperayroity process and have an agreement amount the 15 most including emergencies china India and brazil. The US must get involved. It looks very promising to advance mitigation of emissions. The bush administration has showed much flexibility on this issue. MARKET AND technology but it needs political guidelines. otherwise you do not create political guides and would help technical solutions. One solution is to capture the carbon gases in store in the earth.Alternative sources of energy are developing Brazil and US are investing in bio fuelsbut the limitations critical such as ethanol. the draw back is its effect of agriculture are problematic. Corn in US could not satisfy the market and raised the price this staple food of Mexico.Natural resources of Wind and Solar is the EU preference. France which sells electrical power to German, Italy, and Spain. France believes that nuclear energy is the only way to solve the bio fuels dilemmaThe government party is open to nuclear energy because it does not effect climate change but it is also cheaper in the long run to prove energy. The socialist democratic party so there is a compromise in German not to invest in nuclear energy at the present time.IN the next 15 years we would have to promote coal power plants which do produce carbon.Kyoto everyone agrees that it does not work, The basic problem was that an international Annex I that only industrialized countries are included and did not include India and China who are heavy polluters.India and China, Mexico should e part of a global arrangement. 2012 post Kyoto.Their is momentum now. Johannesburg five years ago Meeting of Bailie Indonesia in December will be the first meeting. The beginning of the process. There was to be a definition of the most responsible there current position Japan, Canada would also We are a developing country we will do our best we are not in a position in to apposition. Others want to see a binding agreement.The argument that some of the emerging economies cannot be considered developing economies if they are providing substantial about of goods on the world market. may make is that they use a lot less carbon based energy per capitaThere may be too many political blocks in the United Nations is the only global forum that global issues can be done.The United States is not a believer in the UN in making binding demands for climate change. It feels that political blocks can distort and circumvent any meaningful reforms. The is a history of small mini states which have a vote in the UN sizing will other countries that they have been persuaded tok